This tutorial explains ICMPv6 types and messages such as Destination unreachable, packet too big, time exceeded, parameter problem, echo request and echo reply in detail.
Like IPv4, the specification for the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) header and extension headers does not provide facilities for reporting errors. Instead, IPv6 uses an updated version of the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) named ICMP version 6 (ICMPv6). ICMPv6 has the common IPv4 ICMP functions of reporting delivery and forwarding errors and providing a simple echo service for troubleshooting. ICMPv6 is defined in RFC 4443 and is required for an IPv6 implementation. The ICMPv6 protocol also provides a packet structure framework for the following:
- Neighbor Discovery Neighbor Discovery (ND) is a series of five ICMPv6 messages that manage node-to-node communication on a link. ND replaces Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), ICMPv4 Router Discovery, and the ICMPv4 Redirect message
- Multicast Listener Discovery Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) is a series of three ICMPv6 messages that are equivalent to the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) for IPv4 for managing subnet multicast membership.
ICMPv6 is also used by other protocols, such as Secure Neighbor Discovery (SEND). SEND is not supported by IPv6 for Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008
Types of ICMPv6 Messages
There are two types of ICMPv6 messages:
- Error messages Error messages report errors in the forwarding or delivery of IPv6 packets by either the destination node or an intermediate router. The high-order bit of the 8-bit Type field for all ICMPv6 error messages is set to 0. Therefore, valid values for the Type field for ICMPv6 error messages are in the range of 0 through 127. ICMPv6 error messages include Destination Unreachable, Packet Too Big, Time Exceeded, and Parameter Problem.
- Informational messages Informational messages provide diagnostic functions and additional host functionality, such as MLD and ND. The high-order bit of the 8-bit Type field for all ICMPv6 informational messages is set to 1. Therefore, valid values for the Type field for ICMPv6 information messages are in the range of 128 through 255.
ICMPv6 informational messages described in RFC 4443 include Echo Request and Echo Reply. There are additional ICMPv6 informational messages defined for Mobile IPv6.
ICMPv6 Error Messages
ICMPv6 error messages report forwarding or delivery errors by either a router or the destination host, and they consist of the following messages:
- Destination Unreachable (ICMPv6 Type 1)
- Packet Too Big (ICMPv6 Type 2)
- Time Exceeded (ICMPv6 Type 3)
- Parameter Problem (ICMPv6 Type 4)
To conserve network bandwidth, ICMPv6 error messages are not sent for every error encountered. Instead, ICMPv6 error messages are rate limited. Although not required by RFC 4443, the recommended method for rate limiting ICMPv6 error messages is known as token bucket. There is an average rate of transmission of ICMPv6 error messages that cannot be exceeded. The rate of transmission can be based on a number of ICMPv6 error messages per second or a specified percentage of a link’s bandwidth. However, to better handle error notification for busty traffic, the node can send a number of messages in a burst, provided the number of messages in the burst does not exceed the overall transmission rate.
A router or a destination host sends an ICMPv6 Destination Unreachable message when the packet cannot be forwarded to the destination node or upper-layer protocol. In the Destination Unreachable message, the Type field is set to 1 and the Code field is set to a value in the range of 0 through 6. Following the Checksum field is a 32-bit Unused field and the leading portion of the discarded packet, sized so that the entire IPv6 packet containing the ICMPv6 message is no larger than 1280 bytes (the minimum IPv6 MTU). The number of bytes of the discarded packet included in the message varies if there are IPv6 extension headers present. For an ICMPv6 message without extension headers, up to 1232 bytes of the discarded packet are included (1280 less a 40-byte IPv6 header and an 8-byte ICMPv6 Destination Unreachable header).
Packet Too Big
A router sends an ICMPv6 Packet Too Big message when the packet cannot be forwarded because the link MTU on the forwarding interface of the router is smaller than the size of the IPv6 packet
A router typically sends an ICMPv6 Time Exceeded message when the Hop Limit field in the IPv6 header becomes zero after decrementing its value during the forwarding process.
ICMPv6 Informational Messages
An IPv6 node sends an ICMPv6 Echo Request message to a destination to solicit an immediate Echo Reply message. The Echo Request/Echo Reply message facility provides a simple diagnostic function to aid in the troubleshooting of a variety of reach ability and routing problems.
An IPv6 node sends an ICMPv6 Echo Reply message in response to the receipt of an ICMPv6 Echo Request message Echo Request messages can be sent to a multicast address. As specified in RFC 4443, an Echo Request message sent to a multicast address should be answered with an Echo Reply message, sent from a unicast address assigned to the interface on which the Echo Request was received. The IPv6 protocol for Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 does not respond to multicast Echo Request messages. Echo Request messages can be sent to a multicast address. As specified in RFC 4443, an Echo Request message sent to a multicast address should be answered with an Echo Reply message, sent from a unicast address assigned to the interface on which the Echo Request was received. The IPv6 protocol for Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 does not respond to multicast Echo Request messages.
Prerequisites for 200-301
200-301 is a single exam, consisting of about 120 questions. It covers a wide range of topics, such as routing and switching, security, wireless networking, and even some programming concepts. As with other Cisco certifications, you can take it at any of the Pearson VUE certification centers.
The recommended training program that can be taken at a Cisco academy is called Implementing and Administering Cisco Solutions (CCNA). The successful completion of a training course will get you a training badge.
Full Version 200-301 Dumps