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Oracle Database 12c: Installation and Administration

Question No: 101

You execute the following PL/SQL:

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Which two statements are true?

  1. Fine-Grained Auditing (FGA) is enabled for the PRICE column in the PRODUCTS table for SELECT statements only when a row with PRICE gt; 10000 is accessed.

  2. FGA is enabled for the PRODUCTS.PRICE column and an audit record is written whenever a row with PRICEgt; 10000 is accessed.

  3. FGA is enabled for all DML operations by JIM on the PRODUCTS.PRICE column.

  4. FGA is enabled for the PRICE column of the PRODUCTS table and the SQL statements is captured in the FGA audit trial.

Answer: A,B Explanation:

DBMS_FGA.add_policy

  • The DBMS_FGA package provides fine-grained security functions.

  • ADD_POLICY Procedure

  • This procedure creates an audit policy using the supplied predicate as the audit condition.

    Incorrect:

    Not C: object_schema

    The schema of the object to beaudited. (If NULL, the current log-on user schema is assumed.)

    Question No: 102

    You configure your database Instance to support shared server connections.

    Which two memory areas that are part of PGA are stored in SGA instead, for shared server connection?

    1. User session data

    2. Stack space

    3. Private SQL area

    4. Location of the runtime area for DML and DDL Statements

    5. Location of a part of the runtime area for SELECT statements

    Answer: A,C Explanation:

    A: PGA itself is subdivided. The UGA (User Global Area) contains session state information, including stuff like package-level variables, cursor state, etc. Note that, with shared server, the UGA is in the SGA. It has to be, because shared server means that the session state needs to beaccessible to all server processes, as any one of them could be assigned a particular session. However, with dedicated server (which likely what you#39;re using), the UGA is allocated in the PGA.

    C: The Location of a private SQL area depends on the type ofconnection established for a session. If a session is connected through a dedicated server, private SQL areas are located in the server process’ PGA. However, if a session is connected through a shared server, part of the private SQL area is kept in the SGA.

    Note:

    • System global area (SGA)

      The SGA is a group of shared memory structures, known as SGA components, that contain data and control information for one Oracle Database instance. The SGA is shared by all server and background processes. Examples ofdata stored in the SGA include cached data blocks and shared SQL areas.

    • Program global area (PGA)

      A PGA is a memory region that contains data and control information for a server process. It is nonshared memory created by Oracle Database when a serverprocess is started.

      Access to the PGA is exclusive to the server process. There is one PGA for each server process. Background processes also allocate their own PGAs. The total memory used by all individual PGAs is known as the total instance PGA memory, and the collection of individual PGAs is referred to as the total instance PGA, or just instance PGA. You use database initialization parameters to set the size of the instance PGA, not individual PGAs.

      References:

      Question No: 103

      Your multitenant container (CDB) contains two pluggable databases (PDB), HR_PDB and ACCOUNTS_PDB, both of which use the CDB tablespace. The temp file is called temp01.tmp.

      A user issues a query on a table on one of the PDBs and receives thefollowing error: ERROR at line 1:

      ORA-01565: error in identifying file ‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/CDB1/temp01.tmp’ ORA-27037: unable to obtain file status

      Identify two ways to rectify the error.

      1. Add a new temp file to the temporary tablespace and dropthe temp file that that produced the error.

      2. Shut down the database instance, restore the temp01.tmp file from the backup, and then restart the database.

      3. Take the temporary tablespace offline, recover the missing temp file by applying redo logs, and then bring the temporary tablespace online.

      4. Shutdown the database instance, restore and recover the temp file from the backup, and then open the database with RESETLOGS.

      5. Shut down the database instance and then restart the CDB and PDBs.

      Answer: A,E Explanation:

    • Because temp files cannot be backed up and because no redo is ever generated for them, RMAN never restores or recovers temp files. RMAN does track the names of temp files, but only so that it can automatically re-create them when needed.

      *If you use RMAN in a Data Guard environment, then RMAN transparently converts primary control files to standby control files and vice versa. RMAN automatically updates file names for data files, online redo logs, standby redo logs, and temp files when youissue RESTORE and RECOVER.

      Question No: 104

      Examine the details of the Top 5 Timed Events in the following Automatic Workloads Repository(AWR) report:

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      What are three possible causes for the latch-related wait events?

      1. The size of the shared pool is too small.

      2. Cursors are not being shared.

      3. A large number COMMITS are being performed.

      4. There are frequent logons and logoffs.

      5. The buffers are being read into the buffer cache, but some other session is changing the buffers.

      Answer: A,B,E

      Question No: 105

      You notice a performance change in your production Oracle database and you want to know which change has made this performance difference.

      You generate the Compare Period Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM) report to further investigation.

      Which three findings would you get from the report?

      1. It detects any configuration change that caused a performance difference in both time periods.

      2. It identifies any workload change that caused a performance difference in bothtime periods.

      3. It detects the top wait events causing performance degradation.

      4. It shows the resource usage for CPU, memory, and I/O in both time periods.

      5. It shows the difference in the size of memory pools in both time periods.

      6. It gives information about statistics collection in both time periods.

      Answer: A,B,D Explanation:

      Keyword: shows the difference.

    • Full ADDM analysis across two AWR snapshot periods Detects causes, measure effects, then correlates them Causes: workload changes, configuration changes

      Effects: regressed SQL, reach resource limits (CPU, I/O, memory, interconnect) Makes actionable recommendations along with quantified impact

    • Identify what changed

      / Configuration changes, workload changes

    • Performance degradation of the database occurs when your database was performing

      optimally in the past, such as 6 months ago, but has gradually degraded to a point where it becomes noticeable to the users. The Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) Compare Periods report enables you to compare database performance between two periods of time.

      While an AWR report shows AWR data between two snapshots (or two points in time), the AWR Compare Periods report shows the difference (ABE) between two periods (or two AWR reports with a total of foursnapshots). Using the AWR Compare Periods report helps you to identify detailed performance attributes and configuration settings that differ between two time periods.

      References:

      Question No: 106

      Examine the following command:

      CREATE TABLE (prod_id number(4), Prod_name varchar2 (20), Category_id number(30),

      Quantity_on_hand number (3) INVISIBLE);

      Which three statements are true about using an invisible column in the PRODUCTS table?

      1. The %ROWTYPE attribute declarations in PL/SQL to access a row will not display the invisible column in the output.

      2. The DESCRIBE commands in SQL *Plus will not display the invisible column in the output.

      3. Referential integrity constraint cannot be set on the invisible column.

      4. The invisible column cannot be made visible and can only be marked as unused.

      5. A primary key constraint can be added on the invisible column.

      Answer: A,B,E Explanation:

      AB: You can make individual table columns invisible. Any generic access of a table does not show the invisible columns in the table. For example, the following operations do notdisplay invisible columns in the output:

    • SELECT * FROM statements in SQL

    • DESCRIBE commands in SQL*Plus

    • %ROWTYPE attribute declarations in PL/SQL

    • Describes in Oracle Call Interface (OCI)

      Incorrect:

      Not D: You can make invisible columns visible.

      You can make a column invisible during table creation or when you add a column to a table, and you can later alter the table to make the same column visible.

      References:

      Question No: 107

      You upgraded your database from pre-12c to a multitenant container database (CDB) containing pluggable databases (PDBs).

      Examine the query and its output:

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      Which two tasks must you performto add users with SYSBACKUP, SYSDG, and SYSKM privilege to the password file?

      1. Assign the appropriate operating system groups to SYSBACKUP, SYSDG, SYSKM.

      2. Grant SYSBACKUP, SYSDG, and SYSKM privileges to the intended users.

      3. Re-create the password file with SYSBACKUP, SYSDG, and SYSKM privilege and the FORCE argument set to No.

      4. Re-create the password file with SYSBACKUP, SYSDG, and SYSKM privilege, and FORCE arguments set to Yes.

      5. Re-create the password file in the Oracle Database 12c format.

      Answer: B,D Explanation:

    • orapwd

    / You can create a database password file using the password file creation utility, ORAPWD.

    The syntax of the ORAPWD command is as follows:

    orapwd FILE=filename [ENTRIES=numusers] [FORCE={y|n}] [ASM={y|n}] [DBUNIQUENAME=dbname] [FORMAT={12|legacy}] [SYSBACKUP={y|n}] [SYSDG={y|n}]

    [SYSKM={y|n}] [DELETE={y|n}] [INPUT_FILE=input-fname]

    force – whether to overwrite existing file (optional),

    • v$PWFILE_users

      / 12c: V$PWFILE_USERS lists all users in the password file, andindicates whether the user has been granted the SYSDBA, SYSOPER, SYSASM, SYSBACKUP, SYSDG, and SYSKM privileges.

      / 10c: sts users who have been granted SYSDBA and SYSOPER privileges as derived from the password file.

      ColumnDatatypeDescription

      USERNAMEVARCHAR2(30)The name of the user that is contained in the password file SYSDBAVARCHAR2(5)If TRUE, the user can connect with SYSDBA privileges SYSOPERVARCHAR2(5)If TRUE, the user can connect with SYSOPER privileges

      Incorrect:

      not E: The format of the v$PWFILE_users file is already in 12c format.

      Question No: 108

      Examine the following query output:

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      You issue the following command to import tables intothe hr schema:

      $ gt; impdp hr/hr directory = dumpdir dumpfile = hr_new.dmp schemas=hr TRANSFORM=DISABLE_ARCHIVE_LOGGING: Y

      Which statement is true?

      1. All database operations performed by the impdp command are logged.

      2. Only CREATE INDEX and CREATE TABLEstatements generated by the import are logged.

      3. Only CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE statements generated by the import are logged.

      4. None of the operations against the master table used by Oracle Data Pump to coordinate its activities are logged.

      Answer: C Explanation:

      Oracle Data Pump disable redo logging when loading data into tables and when creating indexes.

      The new TRANSFORM option introduced in data pumps import provides the flexibility to turn off the redo generation for the objects during thecourse of import. The Master Table is used to track the detailed progress information of a Data Pump job.

      The Master Table is created in the schema of the current user running the Pump Dump export or import, and it keeps tracks of lots of detailed information.

      Question No: 109

      You created an encryptedtablespace:

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      You then closed the encryption wallet because you were advised that this is secure.

      Later in the day, you attempt to create the EMPLOYEES table in the SECURESPACE tablespace with the SALT option on the EMPLOYEE column.

      Which is true aboutthe result?

      1. It creates the table successfully but does not encrypt any inserted data in the EMPNAME column because the wallet must be opened to encrypt columns with SALT.

      2. It generates an error when creating the table because the wallet is closed.

      3. It creates the table successfully, and encrypts any inserted data in the EMPNAME column because the wallet needs to be open only for tablespace creation.

      4. It generates error when creating the table, because the salt option cannot be used with encryptedtablespaces.

      Answer: C Explanation:

    • The environment setup for tablespace encryption is the same as that for transparent data encryption. Before attempting to create an encrypted tablespace, a wallet must be created to hold the encryption key.

    • Setting the tablespace master encryption key is a one-time activity. This creates the master encryption key for tablespace encryption. This key is stored in an external security module (Oracle wallet) and is used to encrypt the tablespace encryption keys.

    • Before you can create an encrypted tablespace, the Oracle wallet containing the

      tablespace master encryption key must be open. The wallet must also be open before you can access data in an encrypted tablespace.

    • Salt is a way to strengthen the security ofencrypted data. It is a random string added to the data before it is encrypted, causing repetition of text in the clear to appear different when encrypted. Salt removes the one common method attackers use to steal data, namely, matching patterns of encrypted text.

    • ALT | NO SALT By default the database appends a random string, called quot;salt,quot; to the clear text of the column before encrypting it. This default behavior imposes some limitations on encrypted columns:

    / If you specify SALT during column encryption, then the database does not compress the data in the encrypted column even if you specify table compression for the table. However, the database does compress data in unencrypted columns and encrypted columns without the SALT parameter.

    QUESTIONNO: 118

    On your Oracle Database, you issue the following commands to create indexes:

    SQL gt;CREATE INDEX oe.ord_customer_ix1 ON oe.orders (customer_id, sales_rep_id) INVISIBLE;

    SQLgt; CREATE BITMAP INDEX oe.ord_customer_ix2 ON oe.orders (customer_id, sales_rep_id);

    Which two statements are true?

    1. Only the ORD_CUSTOMER_IX1 index created.

    2. Both the indexes are updated when a row is inserted, updated, or deleted in the ORDERS table.

    3. Both the indexes are created: however, only ORD_CUSTOMERS_IX1 is used by the optimizer for queries on the ORDERS table.

    4. The ORD_CUSTOMER_IX1 index is not usedby the optimizer even when the OPTIMIZER_USE_INVISIBLE_INDEXES parameters is set to true.

    5. Both the indexes are created and used by the optimizer for queries on the ORDERS table.

    6. Both the indexes are created: however, only ORD_CUSTOMERS_IX2 is used by the optimizer for queries on the ORDERS table.

    Answer: B,F

    Not A: Both indexes are created fine.

    B: The invisible index ORD_CUSTOMERS_IX1 and the bitmap index are both updated by DML operations on the Orders table.

    F: Since ORD_CUSTOMERS_IX1 is invisible only ORD_CUSTOMERS_IX2 is used by the query optimizer.

    Not C,Not D,Not E:

    • ord_customer_ix1 is an invisible index and is therefore not used by the optimizer.

    • VISIBLE | INVISIBLE Use this clause to specify whether the index is visible orinvisible to the optimizer. An invisible index is maintained by DML operations, but it is not be used by the optimizer during queries unless you explicitly set the parameter OPTIMIZER_USE_INVISIBLE_INDEXES to TRUE at the session or system level.

    Note: Specify BITMAP to indicate that index is to be created with a bitmap for each distinct key, rather than indexing each row separately. Bitmap indexes store the rowids associated with a key value as a bitmap. Each bit in the bitmap corresponds to a possible rowid. If the bit is set, then it means that the row with the corresponding rowid contains the key value. The internal representation of bitmaps is best suited for applications with low levels of concurrent transactions, such as data warehousing.

    Question No: 110

    Your database is configured for ARCHIVELOG mode, and a daily full database backupis taken. RMAN is configured to perform control file autobackup.

    In which three scenarios do you need media recovery?

    1. loss of all the copies of the control file

    2. loss of all the inactive online redo log group members

    3. loss of a data file that belongs to the active undo tablespace

    4. loss of data files that belong to the SYSTEM tablespace

    5. logical corruption of data that is caused by a wrong transaction

    6. abnormal termination of the database instance

    Answer: A,B,C

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