CompTIA Security Certification
Question No: 501 – (Topic 3)
Which of the following can be used by a security administrator to successfully recover a user’s forgotten password on a password protected file?
Answer: C Explanation:
One way to recover a user’s forgotten password on a password protected file is to guess it.
A brute force attack is an automated attempt to open the file by using many different passwords.
A brute force attack is a trial-and-error method used to obtain information such as a user password or personal identification number (PIN). In a brute force attack, automated software is used to generate a large number of consecutive guesses as to the value of the desired data. Brute force attacks may be used by criminals to crack encrypted data, or by security analysts to test an organization#39;s network security.
A brute force attack may also be referred to as brute force cracking.
For example, a form of brute force attack known as a dictionary attack might try all the words in a dictionary. Other forms of brute force attack might try commonly-used passwords or combinations of letters and numbers.
An attack of this nature can be time- and resource-consuming. Hence the name quot;brute force attack;quot; success is usually based on computing power and the number of combinations tried rather than an ingenious algorithm.
Question No: 502 – (Topic 3)
A security specialist has been asked to evaluate a corporate network by performing a vulnerability assessment. Which of the following will MOST likely be performed?
Identify vulnerabilities, check applicability of vulnerabilities by passively testing security controls.
Verify vulnerabilities exist, bypass security controls and exploit the vulnerabilities.
Exploit security controls to determine vulnerabilities and misconfigurations.
Bypass security controls and identify applicability of vulnerabilities by passively testing security controls.
Answer: A Explanation:
We need to determine if vulnerabilities exist by passively testing security controls.
A vulnerability scan is the automated process of proactively identifying security vulnerabilities of computing systems in a network in order to determine if and where a system can be exploited and/or threatened. While public servers are important for communication and data transfer over the Internet, they open the door to potential security breaches by threat agents, such as malicious hackers.
Vulnerability scanning employs software that seeks out security flaws based on a database of known flaws, testing systems for the occurrence of these flaws and generating a report
of the findings that an individual or an enterprise can use to tighten the network#39;s security. Vulnerability scanning typically refers to the scanning of systems that are connected to the Internet but can also refer to system audits on internal networks that are not connected to the Internet in order to assess the threat of rogue software or malicious employees in an enterprise.
Question No: 503 – (Topic 3)
Which of the following can be implemented if a security administrator wants only certain devices connecting to the wireless network?
Disable SSID broadcast
Install a RADIUS server
Enable MAC filtering
Lowering power levels on the AP
Answer: C Explanation:
MAC filtering is commonly used in wireless networks. In computer networking, MAC Filtering (or GUI filtering, or layer 2 address filtering) refers to a security access control method whereby the 48-bit address assigned to each network card is used to determine access to the network.
MAC addresses are uniquely assigned to each card, so using MAC filtering on a network permits and denies network access to specific devices through the use of blacklists and whitelists. While the restriction of network access through the use of lists is straightforward, an individual person is not identified by a MAC address, rather a device only, so an authorized person will need to have a whitelist entry for each device that he or she would use to access the network.
Question No: 504 – (Topic 3)
Several users report to the administrator that they are having issues downloading files from the file server. Which of the following assessment tools can be used to determine if there is an issue with the file server?
MAC filter list
Answer: C Explanation:
The standard configuration on a server is known as the baseline. In this question, we can see if anything has changed on the file server by comparing its current configuration with the baseline.
The IT baseline protection approach is a methodology to identify and implement computer security measures in an organization. The aim is the achievement of an adequate and appropriate level of security for IT systems. This is known as a baseline.
A baseline report compares the current status of network systems in terms of security updates, performance or other metrics to a predefined set of standards (the baseline).
Question No: 505 – (Topic 3)
A user, Ann, is reporting to the company IT support group that her workstation screen is blank other than a window with a message requesting payment or else her hard drive will be formatted. Which of the following types of malware is on Ann’s workstation?
Answer: D Explanation:
Ransomware is a type of malware which restricts access to the computer system that it infects, and demands a ransom paid to the creator(s) of the malware in order for the restriction to be removed. Some forms of ransomware encrypt files on the system#39;s hard drive), while some may simply lock the system and display messages intended to coax the user into paying.
Ransomware typically propagates as a trojan like a conventional computer worm, entering a system through, for example, a downloaded file or a vulnerability in a network service.
The program will then run a payload: such as one that will begin to encrypt personal files on the hard drive. More sophisticated ransomware may hybrid-encrypt the victim#39;s plaintext with a random symmetric key and a fixed public key. The malware author is the only party that knows the needed private decryption key. Some ransomware payloads do not use
encryption. In these cases, the payload is simply an application designed to restrict interaction with the system, typically by setting the Windows Shell to itself, or even modifying the master boot record and/or partition table (which prevents the operating system from booting at all until it is repaired)
Ransomware payloads utilize elements of scareware to extort money from the system#39;s user. The payload may, for example, display notices purportedly issued by companies or law enforcement agencies which falsely claim that the system had been used for illegal activities, or contains illegal content such as pornography and pirated software or media. Some ransomware payloads imitate Windows’ product activation notices, falsely claiming that their computer#39;s Windows installation is counterfeit or requires re-activation. These tactics coax the user into paying the malware#39;s author to remove the ransomware, either by supplying a program which can decrypt the files, or by sending an unlock code that undoes the changes the payload has made.
Question No: 506 – (Topic 3)
Which of the following describes how Sara, an attacker, can send unwanted advertisements to a mobile device?
Answer: B Explanation:
Bluejacking is the sending of unsolicited messages over Bluetooth to Bluetooth-enabled devices such as mobile phones, PDAs or laptop computers, sending a vCard which typically contains a message in the name field (i.e., for bluedating or bluechat) to another Bluetooth-enabled device via the OBEX protocol.
Bluetooth has a very limited range, usually around 10 metres (32.8 ft) on mobile phones, but laptops can reach up to 100 metres (328 ft) with powerful (Class 1) transmitters.
Bluejacking is usually harmless, but because bluejacked people generally don#39;t know what has happened, they may think that their phone is malfunctioning. Usually, a bluejacker will only send a text message, but with modern phones it#39;s possible to send images or sounds as well. Bluejacking has been used in guerrilla marketing campaigns to promote advergames.
Question No: 507 – (Topic 3)
Which of the following malware types typically allows an attacker to monitor a user’s computer, is characterized by a drive-by download, and requires no user interaction?
Spyware is software that is used to gather information about a person or organization without their knowledge and sends that information to another entity.
Question No: 508 HOTSPOT – (Topic 3)
Select the appropriate attack from each drop down list to label the corresponding illustrated attack
Instructions: Attacks may only be used once, and will disappear from drop down list if selected.
When you have completed the simulation, please select the Done button to submit.
1: Spear phishing is an e-mail spoofing fraud attempt that targets a specific organization, seeking unauthorized access to confidential data. As with the e-mail messages used in
regular phishing expeditions, spear phishing messages appear to come from a trusted source. Phishing messages usually appear to come from a large and well-known company or Web site with a broad membership base, such as eBay or PayPal. In the case of spear phishing, however, the apparent source of the e-mail is likely to be an individual within the recipient#39;s own company and generally someone in a position of authority.
2: The Hoax in this question is designed to make people believe that the fake AV (anti- virus) software is genuine.
3: Vishing is the act of using the telephone in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft. The scammer usually pretends to be a legitimate business, and fools the victim into thinking he or she will profit.
4: Phishing is the act of sending an email to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft.
Phishing email will direct the user to visit a website where they are asked to update personal information, such as a password, credit card, social security, or bank account numbers, that the legitimate organization already has. The website, however, is bogus and set up only to steal the information the user enters on the page.
5: Similar in nature to e-mail phishing, pharming seeks to obtain personal or private (usually financial related) information through domain spoofing. Rather than being spammed with malicious and mischievous e-mail requests for you to visit spoof Web sites which appear legitimate, pharming #39;poisons#39; a DNS server by infusing false information into the DNS server, resulting in a user#39;s request being redirected elsewhere. Your browser, however will show you are at the correct Web site, which makes pharming a bit more serious and more difficult to detect. Phishing attempts to scam people one at a time with an e-mail while pharming allows the scammers to target large groups of people at one time through domain spoofing.
References: http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/spear-phishing http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/V/vishing.html http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/phishing.html http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/pharming.html
Question No: 509 – (Topic 3)
Which of the following implementation steps would be appropriate for a public wireless hot- spot?
Reduce power level
Disable SSID broadcast
Open system authentication
Answer: C Explanation:
For a public wireless hot-spot, you want members of the public to be able to access the wireless network without having to provide them with a password. Therefore, Open System Authentication is the best solution.
Open System Authentication (OSA) is a process by which a computer can gain access to a wireless network that uses the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) protocol. With OSA, a computer equipped with a wireless modem can access any WEP network and receive files that are not encrypted.
For OSA to work, the service set identifier (SSID) of the computer should match the SSID of the wireless access point. The SSID is a sequence of characters that uniquely names a wireless local area network (WLAN). The process occurs in three steps. First, the computer sends a request for authentication to the access point. Then the access point generates an authentication code, usually at random, intended for use only during that session. Finally, the computer accepts the authentication code and becomes part of the network as long as the session continues and the computer remains within range of the original access point. If it is necessary to exchange encrypted data between a WEP network access point and a wireless-equipped computer, a stronger authentication process called Shared Key Authentication (SKA) is required.
Question No: 510 – (Topic 3)
The Chief Information Officer (CIO) receives an anonymous threatening message that says “beware of the 1st of the year”. The CIO suspects the message may be from a former disgruntled employee planning an attack.
Which of the following should the CIO be concerned with?
Answer: C Explanation:
A logic bomb is a piece of code intentionally inserted into a software system that will set off a malicious function when specified conditions are met. For example, a programmer may hide a piece of code that starts deleting files should they ever be terminated from the company.
Software that is inherently malicious, such as viruses and worms, often contain logic bombs that execute a certain payload at a pre-defined time or when some other condition is met. This technique can be used by a virus or worm to gain momentum and spread before being noticed. Some viruses attack their host systems on specific dates, such as Friday the 13th or April Fool#39;s Day. Trojans that activate on certain dates are often called quot;time bombsquot;.
To be considered a logic bomb, the payload should be unwanted and unknown to the user of the software. As an example, trial programs with code that disables certain functionality after a set time are not normally regarded as logic bombs.
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