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CCIE Routing and Switching Written Exam v5.1

QUESTION 311

Which technology is not necessary to set up a basic MPLS domain?

 

A.

IP addressing

B.

an IGP

C.

LDP or TDP

D.

CEF

E.

a VRF

Correct Answer: E

Explanation:< /b>

The simplest form of VRF implementation is VRF Lite. In this implementation, each router within the network participates in the virtual routing environment in a peer-based fashion. While simple to deploy and appropriate for small to medium enterprises and shared data centres, VRF Lite does not scale to the size required by global enterprises or large carriers, as there is the need to implement each VRF instance on every router, including intermediate routers. VRFs were initially introduced in combination with MPLS, but VRF proved to be so useful that it eventually evolved to live independent of MPLS. This is the historical explanation of the term VRF LitE. usage of VRFs without MPLS.

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_routing_and_forwarding

 

 

QUESTION 312

Refer to the exhibit. Which device role could have generated this debug output?

 

clip_image001

 

A.

an NHS only

B.

an NHC only

C.

an NHS or an NHC

D.

a DMVPN hub router

 

Correct Answer: B

Explanation:

NHRP works off a server/client relationship, where the NHRP clients (let’s call them next hop clients/NHCs) register with their next hop server (NHS), it’s the responsibility of the NHS to track all of its NHCs this is done with registration request and reply packets. Here we see a registration request, which can only be sent by an NHC.

 

 

QUESTION 313

Which two options are mandatory components of a multiprotocol BGP VPN-IPv4 address? (Choose two.)

 

A.

a route distinguisher

B.

an IPv4 address

C.

a route target

D.

an MPLS label

E.

a system ID

F.

an area ID

 

Correct Answer: AB

Explanation:

The IP prefix is a member of the IPv4 address family. After the PE device learns the IP prefix, the PE converts it into a VPN-IPv4 prefix by combining it with an 8-byte route distinguisher (RD). The generated prefix is a member of the VPN-IPv4 address family. It uniquely identifies the customer address, even if the customer site is using globally nonunique (unregistered private) IP addresses. The route distinguisher used to generate the VPN-IPv4 prefix is specified by a configuration command associated with the virtual routing and forwarding (VRF) instance on the PE device.

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios-xml/ios/mp_l3_vpns/configuration/15-mt/mp-l3-vpns-15-mt-book/mp-bgp-mpls-vpn.html

 

 

QUESTION 314

DRAG DROP

clip_image003

 

Correct Answer:

clip_image005

 

 

QUESTION 315

Refer to the exhibit. Why is the OSPF state in 2WAY/DROTHER?

 

clip_image007

 

A.

This is the expected output when the interface Ethernet0/0 of R1 is configured with OSPF Priority 0.

B.

There is a duplicate router ID.

C.

There is an MTU mismatch.

D.

There is an OSPF timer (hello/dead) mismatch.

E.

This is the expected output when R1 is the DR.

 

Correct Answer: A

Explanation:

Sometimes it is desirable for a router to be configured so that it is not eligible to become the DR or BDR. You can do this by setting the OSPF priority to zero with the ip ospf priority priority# interface subcommand. If two OSPF neighbors both have their OSPF interface priority set to zero, they establish two-way adjacency instead of full adjacency.

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/open-shortest-path-first-ospf/13683-11.html

 

 

QUESTION 316

You are installing a new device to replace a device that failed. The configuration of the failed device is stored on a networked server, and the new device has an RXBOOT image installed. Under which condition does the streamlined Setup mode fail?

 

A.

The last four bits of the configuration register are not equal to the decimal value 0 or 1.

B.

The startup configuration file was deleted.

C.

Bit 6 is set in the configuration register.

D.

The startup configuration is corrupt.

 

Correct Answer: A

Explanation:

The lowest four bits of the configuration register (bits 3, 2, 1, and 0) form the boot field. The boot field determines if the router boots manually, from ROM, or from Flash or the network. To change the boot field value and leave all other bits set to their default values, follow these guidelines:

 

clip_image009If you set the configuration register boot field value to 0x0, you must boot the operating system manually with the boot command.

clip_image009[1]If you set the configuration register boot field value to 0x1, the router boots using the default ROM software.

clip_image009[2]If you set the configuration register boot field to any value from 0x2 to 0xF, the router uses the boot field value to form a default boot filename for booting from a network server.

 

For more information about the configuration register bit settings and default filenames, refer to the appropriate router hardware installation guide.

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios/12_2/configfun/command/reference/ffun_r/frf010.html

 

 

QUESTION 317

What is the range of addresses that is used for IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses?

 

A.

2001. db9. . /32

B.

2001. db8. . /32

C.

2002. . /16

D.

. . ffff. /16

E.

. . ffff. 0. 0/96

 

Correct Answer: E

Explanation:

IPv4-Mapped Addresses

FFFF:0:0/96 are the IPv4-mapped addresses [RFC4291]. Addresses within this block should not appear on the public Internet.

Reference: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5156

 

 

QUESTION 318

Which flag in a configuration BPDU instructs all switches to shorten their bridge table aging process from the default 300 seconds to the current forward delay value?

 

A.

topology change bit

B.

topology change acknowledgment bit

C.

priority bit

D.

max-age bit

 

Correct Answer: A

Explanation:

The Root Bridge continues to set the Topology Change flag (TCN bit) in all Configuration BPDUs that it sends out for a total of Forward Delay + Max Age seconds (default = 35 (20+15) seconds). This flag instructs all bridges to shorten their MAC address table (Bridge table) aging process from the default value of 300 seconds to the current Forward Delay value of the bridge (default=15 seconds).

The TCA flag is set by the upstream bridge to tell the downstream bridges to stop sending TCN BPDUs. The TC flag is set in configuration BPDU by the Root Bridge to shorten the bridge table age-out period from default 300 seconds to Forward Delay seconds.

 

 

QUESTION 319

What does a nonzero forwarding address indicate in a type-5 LSA?

 

A.

It indicates that this link-state ID is eligible for ECMP.

B.

It indicates that this router
should have an OSPF neighbor relationship with the forwarding address before using this link-state ID.

C.

It indicates that the receiving router must check that the next hop is reachable in its routing table before using this link-state ID.

D.

It indicates that traffic can be directly routed to this next hop in shared segment scenarios where the external route source is directly connected.

 

Correct Answer: D

Explanation:

The value of the forwarding address specified by the autonomous system boundary router (ASBR) can be either 0.0.0.0 or non-zero. The 0.0.0.0 address indicates that the originating router (the ASBR) is the next hop. The forwarding address is determined by these conditions:

The forwarding address is set to 0.0.0.0 if the ASBR redistributes routes and OSPF is not enabled on the next hop interface for those routes.

These conditions set the forwarding address field to a non-zero address:

ASBR’s next hop interface address falls under the network range specified in the router ospf command

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/open-shortest-path-first-ospf/13682-10.html

 

 

 

 

 

QUESTION 320

Refer to the exhibit. R1 and R2 have a working VRF-Lite configuration, but R1 is receiving a route only to 10.2.2.2 from R2. Which two changes can you make so that R1 receives all routes from R2? (Choose two.)

 

clip_image010

 

A.

Create an additional permit statement in the access list that is referenced by the import-map on R1.

B.

Disable VRF filtering on R1.

C.

Set the R1 and R2 OSPF process IDs to match.

D.

Change the wildcard mask for the network 10.3.3.0 to 0.0.0.0.

E.

Create a matching export map in the VRF for R2.

 

Correct Answer: AB

Explanation:

The access list in this example is only allowing the 192.168.0.0/16 and 10.2.2.2/32 routes to be advertised, so an additional permit statement is needed to allow the other routes. Alternatively, we could simply disable VRF filtering, then all routes would be advertised.

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