Ensurepass

Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE v2.0)

 

QUESTION 1

Refer to the exhibit. Based on this FIB table, which statement is correct?

 

clip_image002

 

A.

There is no default gateway.

B.

The IP address of the router on FastEthernet is 209.168.201.1.

C.

The gateway of last resort is 192.168.201.1.

D.

The router will listen for all multicast traffic.

 

Correct Answer: C

Explanation:

The 0.0.0.0/0 route is the default route and is listed as the first CEF entry. Here we see the next hop for this default route lists 192.168.201.1 as the default router (gateway of last resort).

 

 

QUESTION 2

Refer to the exhibit. A network administrator checks this adjacency table on a router. What is a possible cause for the incomplete marking?

 

clip_image004

 

A.

incomplete ARP information

B.

incorrect ACL

C.

dynamic routing protocol failure

D.

serial link congestion

 

Correct Answer: A

Explanation:

To display information about the Cisco Express Forwarding adjacency table or the hardware Layer 3-switching adjacency table, use the show adjacency command.

Reasons for Incomplete Adjacencies

There are two known reasons for an incomplete adjacency:

No ARP Entry

When CEF cannot locate a valid adjacency for a destination prefix, it punts the packets to the CPU for ARP resolution and, in turn, for completion of the adjacency.

Reference:

http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/express-forwarding-cef/17812-cef- incomp.html#t4

 

QUESTION 3

A network engineer notices that transmission rates of senders of TCP traffic sharply increase and decrease simultaneously during periods of congestion. Which condition causes this?

 

A.

global synchronization

B.

tail drop

C.

random early detection

D.

queue management algorithm

 

Correct Answer: A

Explanation:

TCP global synchronization in computer networks can happen to TCP/IP flows during periods of congestion because each sender will reduce their transmission rate at the same time when packet loss occurs.

Routers on the Internet normally have packet queues, to allow them to hold packets when the network is busy, rather than discarding them.

Because routers have limited resources, the size of these queues is also limited. The simplest technique to limit queue size is known as tail drop. The queue is allowed to fill to its maximum size, and then any new packets are simply discarded, until there is space in the queue again. This causes problems when used on TCP/IP routers handling multiple TCP streams, especially when bursty traffic is present. While the network is stable, the queue is constantly full, and there are no problems except that the full queue results in high latency. However, the introduction of a sudden burst of traffic may cause large numbers of established, steady streams to lose packets simultaneously.

Reference:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TCP_global_synchronization

 

 

QUESTION 4

Which three problems result from application mixing of UDP and TCP streams within a network with no QoS? (Choose three.)

 

A.

starvation

B.

jitter

C.

latency

D.

windowing

E.

lower throughput

 

Correct Answer: ACE

Explanation:

It is a general best practice not to mix TCP-based traffic with UDP-based traffic (especially streaming video) within a single service provider class due to the behaviors of these protocols during periods of congestion. Specifically, TCP transmitters will throttle-back flows when drops have been detected. Although some UDP applications have application-level windowing, flow control, and retransmission capabilities, most UDP transmitters are completely oblivious to drops and thus never lower transmission rates due to dropping. When TCP flows are combined with UDP flows in a single service provider class and the class experiences congestion, then TCP flows will continually lower their rates, potentially giving up their bandwidth to drop-oblivious UDP flows. This effect is called TCP-starvation/UDP-dominance. This can increase latency and lower the overall throughput.

TCP-starvation/UDP-dominance likely occurs if (TCP-based) mission-critical data is assigned to the same service provider class as (UDP-based) streaming video and the class experiences sustained congestion. Even if WRED is enabled on the service provider class, the same behavior would be observed, as WRED (for the most part) only affects TCP-based flows. Granted, it is not always possible to separate TCP-based flows from UDP-based flows, but it is beneficial to be aware of this behavior when making such application-mixing decisions.

Reference:

http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/so/neso/vpn/vpnsp/spqsd_wp.htm

 

 

QUESTION 5

Which method allows IPv4 and IPv6 to work together without requiring both to be used for a single connection during the migration process?

 

A.

dual-stack method

B.

6to4 tunneling

C.

GRE tunneling

D.

NAT-PT

 

Correct Answer: A

Explanation:

Dual stack means that devices are able to run IPv4 and IPv6 in parallel. It allows hosts to simultaneously reach IPv4 and IPv6 content, so it offers a very flexible coexistence strategy. For sessions that support IPv6, IPv6 is used on a dual stack endpoint. If both endpoints support IPv4 only, then IPv4 is used.

Benefits:

– Native dual stack does not require any tunneling mechanisms on internal networks

– Both IPv4 and IPv6 run independent of each other

– Dual stack supports gradual migration of endpoints, networks, and applications.

Reference:

http://www.cisco.com/web/strategy/docs/gov/IPV6at_a_glance_c45-625859.pdf

 

 

QUESTION 6

Which statement about the use of tunneling to migrate to IPv6 is true?

 

A.

Tunneling is less secure than dual stack or translation.

B.

Tunneling is more difficult to configure than dual stack or translation.

C.

Tunneling does not enable users of the new protocol to communicate with users of the old protocol without dual-stack hosts.

D.

Tunneling destinations are manually determined by the IPv4 address in the low-order 32 bits of IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses.

 

Correct Answer: C

Explanation:

Using the tunneling option, organizations build an overlay network that tunnels one protocol over the other by encapsulating IPv6 packets within IPv4 packets and IPv4 packets within IPv6 packets. The advantage of this approach is that the new protocol can work without disturbing the old protocol, thus providing connectivity between users of the new protocol. Tunneling has two disadvantages, as discussed in RFC 6144:

Users of the new architecture cannot use the services of the underlying infrastructure.

Tunneling does not enable users of the new protocol to communicate with users of the old protocol without dual-stack hosts, which negates interoperability.

Reference:

http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/ios-nx-os-software/enterprise-ipv6-solution/white_paper_c11-676278.html

 

 

 

QUESTION 7

A network administrator executes the command clear ip route. Which two tables does this command clear and rebuild? (Choose two.)

 

A.

IP routing

B.

FIB

C.

ARP cache

D.

MAC address table

E.

Cisco Express Forwarding table

F.

topology table

 

Correct Answer: AB

Explanation:

To clear one or more entries in the IP routing table, use the following commands in any mode:

Command

Purpose

clear ip route {* | {route |

prefix/length}[next-hop interface]}

[vrf vrf-name]

Example:

switch(config)# clear ip route 10.2.2.2

 

Clears one or more routes from both the unicast RIB and all the module FIBs. The route options are as follows:

 

*–All routes.

route–An individual IP route.

prefix/length–Any IP prefix.

next-hop–The next-hop address

interface–The interface to reach the next-hop address.

The vrf-name can be any case-sensitive, alphanumeric string up to 32 characters.

 

Reference:

http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/datacenter/nexus5000/sw/unicast/5_0_3_N1_1/Cis co_n5k_layer3_ucast_cfg_rel_503_N1_1/l3_manage-routes.html

 

 

QUESTION 8

Which switching method is used when entries are present in the output of the command show ip cache?

 

A.

fast switching

B.

process switching

C.

Cisco Express Forwarding switching

D.

cut-through packet switching

 

Correct Answer: A

Explanation:

Fast switching allows higher throughput by switching a packet using a cache created by the initial packet sent to a particular destination. Destination addresses are stored in the high-speed cache to expedite forwarding. Routers offer better packet-transfer performance when fast switching is enabled. Fast switching is enabled by default on all interfaces that support fast switching. To display the routing table cache used to fast switch IP traffic, use the “show ip cache” EXEC command.

Reference:

http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios/12_2/switch/command/reference/fswtch_r/xrfscmd5.html #wp1038133

 

 

QUESTION 9

Which two actions must you perform to enable and use window scaling on a router? (Choose two.)

 

A.

Execute the command ip tcp window-size 65536.

B.

Set window scaling to be used on the remote host.

C.

Execute the command ip tcp queuemax.

D.

Set TCP options to “enabled” on the remote host.

E.

Execute the command ip t
cp adjust-mss.

 

Correct Answer: AB

Explanation:

The TCP Window Scaling feature adds support for the Window Scaling option in RFC 1323, TCP Extensions for High Performance . A larger window size is recommended to improve TCP performance in network paths with large bandwidth-delay product characteristics that are called Long Fat Networks (LFNs). The TCP Window Scaling enhancement provides that support. The window scaling extension in Cisco IOS software expands the definition of the TCP window to 32 bits and then uses a scale factor to carry this 32-bit value in the 16-bit window field of the TCP header. The window size can increase to a scale factor of 14. Typical applications use a scale factor of 3 when deployed in LFNs.

The TCP Window Scaling feature complies with RFC 1323. The larger scalable window size will allow TCP to perform better over LFNs. Use the ip tcp window-size command in global configuration mode to configure the TCP window size. In order for this to work, the remote host must also support this feature and its window size must be increased.

Reference:

http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios-xml/ios/ipapp/configuration/12-4t/iap-12-4t-book/iap-tcp.html#GUID-BD998AC6-F128-47DD-B5F7-B226546D4B08

 

 

QUESTION 10

Which three TCP enhancements can be used with TCP selective acknowledgments? (Choose three.)

 

A.

header compression

B.

explicit congestion notification

C.

keepalive

D.

time stamps

E.

TCP path discovery

F.

MTU window

 

Correct Answer: BCD

Explanation:

TCP Selective Acknowledgment

The TCP Selective Acknowledgment feature improves performance if multiple packets are lost from one TCP window of data.

Prior to this feature, because of limited information available from cumulative acknowledgments, a TCP sender could learn about only one lost packet per-round-trip time. An aggressive sender could choose to resend packets early, but such re-sent segments might have already been successfully received.

The TCP selective acknowledgment mechanism helps improve performance. The receiving TCP host returns selective acknowledgment packets to the sender, informing the sender of data that has been received. In other words, the receiver can acknowledge packets received out of order. The sender can then resend only missing data segments (instead of everything since the first missing packet).

Prior to selective acknowledgment, if TCP lost packets 4 and 7 out of an 8-packet window, TCP would receive acknowledgment of only packets 1, 2, and 3. Packets 4 through 8 would need to be re-sent. With s
elective acknowledgment, TCP receives acknowledgment of packets 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 8. Only packets 4 and 7 must be re-sent.

TCP selective acknowledgment is used only when multiple packets are dropped within one TCP window. There is no performance impact when the feature is enabled but not used. Use the ip tcp selective-ack command in global configuration mode to enable TCP selective acknowledgment. Refer to RFC 2018 for more details about TCP selective acknowledgment.

TCP Time Stamp

The TCP time-stamp option provides improved TCP round-trip time measurements. Because the time stamps are always sent and echoed in both directions and the time-stamp value in the header is always changing, TCP header compression will not compress the outgoing packet. To allow TCP header compression over a serial link, the TCP time-stamp option is disabled. Use the ip tcp timestamp command to enable the TCP time-stamp option.

TCP Explicit Congestion Notification

The TCP Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) feature allows an intermediate router to notify end hosts of impending network congestion. It also provides enhanced support for TCP sessions associated with applications, such as Telnet, web browsing, and transfer of audio and video data that are sensitive to delay or packet loss. The benefit of this feature is the reduction of delay and packet loss in data transmissions. Use the ip tcp ecn command in global configuration mode to enable TCP ECN.

TCP Keepalive Timer

The TCP Keepalive Timer feature provides a mechanism to identify dead connections. When a TCP connection on a routing device is idle for too long, the device sends a TCP keepalive packet to the peer with only the Acknowledgment (ACK) flag turned on. If a response packet (a TCP ACK packet) is not received after the device sends a specific number of probes, the connection is considered dead and the device initiating the probes frees resources used by the TCP connection.

Reference:

http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios-xml/ios/ipapp/configuration/xe-3s/asr1000/iap-xe-3s-asr1000-book/iap-tcp.html#GUID-22A82C5F-631F-4390-9838-F2E48FFEEA01

 

Free VCE & PDF File for Cisco 300-101 Practice Test

Instant Access to Free VCE Files: CCNA | CCNP | CCIE …
Instant Access to Free PDF Files: CCNA | CCNP | CCIE …