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Networking Tutorials

IPv6 Command line Testing & Troubleshooting in Windows

Learn how to use ipconfig command, route command, ping command, tracert command, pathping command and Netstat command for testing and troubleshooting IPv6 network in Windows system. Each command explained with its command line arguments and options. Windows includes the following IPv6-enabled command-line tools that are most commonly used for network troubleshooting: Ipconfig Route Ping Tracert Pathping Netstat Ipconfig The ipconfig tool displays all current TCP/IP network configuration Read more […]

ICMPv6 Types and Messages Explained

This tutorial explains ICMPv6 types and messages such as Destination unreachable, packet too big, time exceeded, parameter problem, echo request and echo reply in detail. Like IPv4, the specification for the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) header and extension headers does not provide facilities for reporting errors. Instead, IPv6 uses an updated version of the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) named ICMP version 6 (ICMPv6). ICMPv6 has the common IPv4 ICMP functions of reporting Read more […]

IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol Explained

This tutorial explains IPv6 neighbor discovery protocol in detail including neighbor discovery process and router solicitation, router advertisement and redirect messages. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Neighbor Discovery (ND) is a set of messages and processes defined in RFC 4861 that determine relationships between neighboring nodes. ND replaces Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) router discovery, and the ICMP Redirect message used in IPv4. ND Read more […]

Ethernet Standards and Protocols Explained

This tutorial explains Ethernet Standards and Protocols in detail. Learn how the most common Ethernet standards (such as 10Base5, 10BaseT, 100BaseFX, 802.5-Token ring, 802.11b-Wireless, CSMA CD, etc.) are defined in computer network with their functions and purpose. IEEE shorthand identifiers, such as 10Base5, 10Base2, 10BaseT, and 10BaseF include three pieces of information: The number 10: At the front of each identifier, 10 denotes the standard data transfer speed over these media – ten Read more […]

Types of Network Protocols Explained with Functions

This tutorial explains types of network protocols and their functions in details. Understanding these basic network protocols with functions will help you in managing network effectively. Learn how the most common types of network protocols works in computer network. TCP and UDP The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) are used to transmit network data to and from server and client applications. The main difference between the two protocols is that TCP uses Read more […]

Network cable Crimping and Testing Tools

This tutorial explains the most common twisted-pair network cable testing and crimping tools in detail. Learn the tools that you can use to crimp and test twisted-pair network cables. Cables are the backbone of a wired network. The stability, reliability, and performance of a wired network depend on cables. Installing and maintaining cables in a wired network is a difficult task. To make this task easier, a variety of network cable crimping and testing tools are available. In this tutorial, Read more […]

How DHCP Server works Explained with Examples

This tutorial explains basic concepts of DHCP Server including how DHCP Server assigns automatic IP address through four states (DHCP discovery, DHCP offer, DHCP request and DHCP acknowledgement). Learn what DHCP server is and how it works in network. Computers on a IP networks need some essentials information before it can communicate with other hosts. This information include an IP address, and a default route and routing prefix. Configuring IP addressing on a large TCP/IP-based network Read more […]

How to configure IPv6 address in Windows

This tutorial explains how to configure IPv6 address in Windows system from command prompt as well as from GUI interface including Stateful and Stateless Autoconfiguration process and states (Tentative, Valid, Preferred, Deprecated and Invalid) in detail with examples. Autoconfiguration is an incredibly useful solution because it allows devices on a network to address themselves with a link-local unicast address Types of Autoconfiguration There are three types of autoconfiguration: Stateless Read more […]

Network Cable Connectors Types and Specifications

This tutorial explains network cable connector types and specifications in details. Learn what type of network cable connector (such as Rj-45, J Rj-11, USB, MT-RJ, Coaxial BNC, LC Local Connector, MT-RJ, USB BNC and AUI) is used to connect what type of network cable. USB (Universal Serial Bus) Universal Serial Bus, or USB, is a computer standard designed to eliminate the guesswork in connecting peripherals to a PC. It is expected to replace serial and parallel ports. A single USB port can Read more […]

Network Cable Types and Specifications

This tutorial explains the types of network cables used in computer networks in detail. Learn the specifications, standards, and features of the coaxial cable, twisted-pair cable, and the fiber-optical cable. To connect two or more computers or networking devices in a network, network cables are used. There are three types of network cables; coaxial, twisted-pair, and fiber-optic. Coaxial cable This cable contains a conductor, insulator, braiding, and sheath. The sheath covers the braiding, Read more […]

Computer Peripheral Devices and Their Functions Explained

This tutorial explains computer peripheral devices and their function in details with examples. Learn how computer peripheral devices (such as RAM, ROM, processor, input and out device, motherboard and storage device) work with functions and specifications. Bits & Bytes Computers are devices powered by electricity, which has two discrete states: On or Off. To be processed, all data in a computer system (words, symbols, pictures, videos, sounds) must be reduced to a string of binary digits. A Read more […]

IPv6 Address Types & Format Explained with Examples

This tutorial explains IPv6 address terminology such as node, router, host, link and network including types of IPv6 address such as anycast address, multicast address, unicast address, link local address, site local address, loopback address, IPv4 compatible address in detail. IPv6 Address Terminology Node Any device that runs an implementation of IPv6. This includes routers and hosts. Router A node that can forward IPv6 packets not explicitly addressed to itself. On an IPv6 network, a router Read more […]

Network Operating System Features and Functions

This tutorial explains network operating system features and function in details. Learn what is a network operating system and features offered by popular network operating systems (such as Linux, UNIX, Netware, Apple Mac and Windows Server) with functions. A network operating system (NOS) provides services to clients over a network. Both the client/server and peer-to-peer networking models use network operating systems, and as such, NOSes must be able to handle typical network duties such Read more […]

Basic Networking Commands Explained with Examples

This tutorial explains basic networking commands (such as tracert, traceroute, ping, arp, netstat, nbstat, NetBIOS, ipconfig, winipcfg and nslookup) and their arguments, options and parameters in details including how they are used to troubleshoot the computer network. Tracert / traceroute Tracert: Determines the path taken to a destination by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request messages to the destination with incrementally increasing Time to Live (TTL) field values. Read more […]

Network Security Types, Terms and Definitions Explained

This tutorial presents a collection of network security types, terms and definitions. This network security terminology collection will help you in learning the basic concepts of network security in computer network with possible security threats and solutions. Port Blocking / Filtering A network layer firewall works as a packet filter by deciding what packets will pass the firewall according to rules defined by the administrator. Filtering rules can act on the basis of source and destination Read more […]

IP Address Classes and Definition Explained

This tutorial explains what IP address is, IP address format, types of IP address, IP address classes, subnet mask, private IP addresses and public IP addresses in detail with examples. Learn how IP address works and why an interface needs a unique IP address along with how to find the class of an IP address. What is IP address? An IP address is a numeric identity of an interface. Just like a postal address provides a unique identity to a house, an IP address provides a unique identity to Read more […]

Full Form of Hardware and Networking Devices

Searching for full form of any computer related term or looking for what a term stands for in computer world, here is the A to Z list of most common computer hardware and networking terms in abbreviated form as well as in full form with description. Abbreviated FormFull Form Description ACalternating current ACPIadvanced configuration and power interface ACTactivity ADSLasymmetrical digital subscriber line ADSP AppleTalk data stream protocol AEP AppleTalk echo protocol AFP Read more […]

Computer Networking Devices Explained with Function

This tutorial explains the functions of the most common and the essential networking devices (such as Hub, Switch, Router, Bridge, Modem, NIC, Proxy and Gateway) in detail with examples. Network Interface Card (NIC) In the list of the networking devices, NIC stands on the first place. Without this device, networking cannot be done. This is also known as network adapter card, Ethernet Card and LAN card. NIC allows a networking device to communicate with the other networking device. NIC converts Read more […]