A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 4.1 – Dumps4shared

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 4.1

A+ Exam Objective 4.1

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4.1 Compare and contrast cloud computing concepts.

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Welcome to ExamNotes by CertBlaster! In
this edition, we will examine the Cloud and the wealth of services available through
it. A quick caution, when you are examining services, there is a tendency in
the sales community to use Cloud terminology/buzzwords to describe traditional
services in order to make them sound updated. You will not find these terms
discussed here or on the test, but you may encounter them in life or

We will first look at the Cloud service categories as defined by
the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Next, we will look
at the types of services available and some of the methods used to make
hardware, applications, databases, and even operating systems run online.

Common cloud models

Cloud services are hosted and managed by third party entities
that provide most of the hardware and software required to access their
services on demand. These
services need to be broadly accessible and must provide resource pooling. Storage
needs to provide rapid
elasticity and be capable of measured service. There
are several service models which are used to describe the level of service the
provider and the customer are responsible for. Think of Cloud service
categories as a stack of service models, with the lowest layers providing the
foundation of total vendor management responsibility. Here is an example.

Cloud services


SaaS stands for Software as a Service. In this case, the vendor
supplies and manages everything from the hardware to the applications that are
used. This is a total solution as users and developers alike can access and
modify the content. Different Cloud computing types offer different levels of
accessibility as you will see next.


IaaS stands for Infrastructure as a Service.  IaaS is at
the foundation in terms of vendor responsibility. The vendor supplies virtual
access to the hardware, including virtual servers that can run the customers,
server software, and applications on demand. This configuration also can be
used to host websites and email servers. As the name implies, the vendor
supplies the Infrastructure and the customer supplies the applications and
data. Depending on the agreement, the vendor may or may not supply the
operating system(s).


PaaS stands for Platform as a Service. It is quite similar to
IaaS but provides two additional value-added services, making it the second
layer in the Cloud Services model. For example, consider a platform for
collaborative software development that maximizes the workflow regardless of
the data source of an application. This means dissimilar sources can be used and
proprietary application data can be used in the creation of software. This type
of platform is useful for supporting multiple developers and automating the
testing process.

Public vs. Private
vs. Hybrid vs. Community

Public Cloud

The Public Cloud is available to all parties over the Internet.
There are numerous companies providing publicly accessible services such as email
and storage.

Private Cloud

A Private Cloud is internal to a company or organization and
provides access only to those on the premises or connected via VPN. Private
Clouds are the most secure type.

Hybrid Cloud

A Hybrid Cloud is a combination of public and/or private Cloud
networks. These are often offered by hosting providers along with dedicated
hosting.  A company may use the private internal Cloud for storage of confidential
communication and the external Cloud for email and web services.

Community Cloud

A Community Cloud is used by a collaborative group that shares resources
for a common goal. This could be a medical group, insurance company, or any
group of entities that has a shared objective. These Cloud types tend to be
bigger than Private Clouds but smaller than the Public Cloud.

Here is a graphic representation of the main Cloud computing

Cloud computing public – private

Cloud Requirements

In order to qualify as a Cloud compatible service, the
Infrastructure, Platform, and Software must meet the NIST guidelines listed
below. These guidelines are the minimum requirement as additional services can
be provided by a Cloud service.

Rapid Elasticity

Rapid Elasticity is the ability of a Cloud solution to scale its
service level to meet the demand. This can take the form of adding storage
space or user capacity seamlessly without interruption or the need to
physically change hardware.


On-demand is used to describe a service that is available at any
time. The redundancy that is available to Cloud-based solutions makes 100%
availability (uptime) a reality.

Resource pooling

Resource pooling allows providers to share and spread the
available resources across multiple consumers or companies. Resources are
scaled dynamically and imperceptibly to each user as needed. This provides the
maximum utilization of resources while providing the expected levels of

/ Metered service

Measured service is the practice of analyzing, measuring, or metering
the amount of resources used by an individual or organization. This is used for
billing or for capping instances of over the limit consumption. This covers
quantifiable elements such as bandwidth, storage, or other services.

Off-site email applications

Even with instant messaging taking up much of the routine
communication between known users, email continues to be the most reliable
method of communication. There are public online email providers, such as Gmail
or Yahoo, which are excellent for non-sensitive communication. Off-site email
applications, such as Microsoft Outlook, can provide hosted email services that
are accessible only to a single organization.

Cloud file storage services

Cloud storage is available from the major OS and mobile
device manufacturers. iCloud provided by Apple, Google Drive by Google, and
Microsoft’s OneDrive are a few well-known examples.

Synchronization apps

Each cloud storage option uses a proprietary sync app based
on your account. The synced data can be accessed using a browser and your
account information. There are also third-party sync apps that will work with
several cloud storage services.

Virtual application
streaming/cloud-based applications

Cloud-based applications use software installed only on the
cloud server. These apps are accessed through a web browser without requiring any
local installation.

A hybrid form of this technology is streaming where a small
portion of the app is installed locally and the majority of the process is running
on the cloud. This allows a streaming app to setup the connection and its
parameters locally, enabling quality adjustments to be made based on the
connection properties.

Applications for cell

Each OS will have a preferred download location for apps.
This ensures optimal compatibility with the device and software. For example,
many of the apps used on cell phones and tablets are different from those used
on laptops and desktops regarding how they use available resources. You may see
the option to download the desktop or mobile version of the software.

Virtual desktop

A virtual desktop can be provided as part of a cloud
infrastructure. In this case, the cloud service provider’s hypervisor presents
a virtual desktop to a client using Virtual Desktop infrastructure (VDI). This
desktop will perform according to the base configuration and any modifications
called for by the user’s credentials. This is considered to be a persistent

Once connected, the integration is seamless and the user is
not limited in their capabilities. When a hypervisor allows guest or
non-credentialed access, the VDI will consist of a generic configuration and any
changes will not be saved. This is considered to be a non-persistent VDI.

Virtual NIC

Hypervisors need at least one virtual network interface card
(VNIC). Multiple VNICs can be created in a hypervisor and it is advisable to
create multiple VNICs when supporting multiple virtual clients.

That’s all for sub-objective 4.1! Good luck on the test!

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