A plus 1002 Sub-objective 2.9 – Given a scenario, implement appropriate data destruction and disposal methods. – Dumps4shared

A plus 1002 Sub-objective 2.9 – Given a scenario, implement appropriate data destruction and disposal methods.

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Welcome to ExamNotes by Dumps4shared! This section will examine 220-1002 Objective 2.9 regarding the proper disposal of data and the media types that data is stored on. This section is pretty short but is very important so please pay attention. Let’s dig in!

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When data security was discussed in earlier posts, the majority
of the discussion was centered on protecting live or active data. Equally
important is data that has been moved, is no longer in use, or is stored on
various types of storage media. Shown below is a look at complete PC component
destruction using an industrial shredder.

Shredded PC’s


Sensitive data can be stored indefinitely on hard drives, solid
state media, and tapes. Unless the data is destroyed, it is recoverable by any
party. When choosing a destruction method, understand how the data is stored on
the device. For example, a solid state drive stores data electronically and is
not erased in the same way a hard disk or DLT tape would be. Optical media on
ROM disks will always need to be physically destroyed.


A shredder, as the name implies, reduces computer components
including drives into small pieces. Specific industrial grade shredders
designed for hard drives exist. Note that some digital data destruction
software is also referred to as shredding. The software will leave the drive
useless for general use. Digital shredding is less dramatic than the physical

Destroyed Hard Drive

Drill / Hammer

In the absence of a shredder, it is recommended to destroy hard
drives by drilling several holes through them or by smashing them with a hammer.
When drilling, be sure to drill all the way through the cover, platters, and
circuit board. The goal is to render the drive unreadable or unspinnable. A
hammer will bend the platters out of their surgical alignment. A hammer and
nails will also prohibit spinning. The drill and/or hammered nails will create holes
in the plates that will destroy the read/write heads on the drive.


For hard drives and tapes, another method of ensuring complete data destruction is to wash them electromagnetically. A process called degaussing engulfs the storage device in a very high-intensity magnetic field that fluctuates between the poles, leaving the object magnetically neutral. Since the data stored on these devices is magnetic, the information is wiped out. In addition, the low-level format placed on the drive at the factory is eradicated, making the drive useless. Be advised that this method will have no effect on CD-ROMs and SD cards.

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This is a viable option when performed by professionals. Be
advised that incinerating devices can generate toxic fumes such as PCBs which
are quite hazardous. We are not recommending that you throw devices in the
fireplace or your barbeque grill! Incineration should be performed by
professionals with industrial incinerators. Companies that perform data
destruction are also authorized to issue legal documentation of the

Certificate of

When a storage device is destroyed by a professional service,
they will issue a certificate indicating their compliance with the required
privacy and data security regulations. These regulations can include but are
not limited to those issued by the DoD (Department of Defense), NIST (National
Institute of Standards and Technology), and HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability
and Accountability Act). This document provides a high level of confidence that
any sensitive information has been destroyed while insulating any organization
from any legal repercussions surrounding the stored information. Some companies
provide the opportunity to witness the destruction.

Sample Certificate of Destruction and Recycling

Recycling or
repurposing best practices

Treatment of unused storage devices (e-waste) is an increasing
problem as devices are lasting longer than their relevance. For reasons of
speed or storage capacity, there are a fair amount of magnetic drives and even
SSD drives that have outgrown their value to the owner. The main question to
answer is whether or not to repurpose the drive or to destroy it. For both disk
types, if the objective is to repurpose the drive, guarantee that all of the
data has been wiped from the device.

Low level
format vs. standard format

Low-level formats are performed on hard drives at the factory and contain only the information necessary to interact with a file system. This format writes the track and sector information necessary for a standard (high level) format, creating the MFT and the MBR for the disk. Simply put, the disk is unusable without the low-level format.

Utilities exist that will perform this function. It is imperative that the correct drive is being formatted as this process is irreversible. Remember that performing a low-level format comes with the risk of unintentionally destroying data. Shown below is an example of a low-level format tool.

HDD low level format tool

Overwrite and
Drive wipe

A drive wipe utility, freely available from the drive’s manufacturer or from other online sources, can completely overwrite the drive with zeroes using a new low level format, eradicating the contents of all sectors (hard drive). Secure erase utilities are also available which essentially dump the electrons stored in each block of an SSD device, returning the SSD to its factory specs. Again, be absolutely sure the right target has been selected.

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Shown below is a look at a potentially confusing PC
configuration in the Disk Management Console. If a low level format is being
attempted, it is highly recommended that the computer configuration be reduced to
a removable boot device, e.g. a USB or optical boot device that can be used to
load the chosen formatting tool to work on the target drive.

Disk management

That’s all for 220-1002 objective 2.9. You are close to the
end of Main Domain 2.0. One to Go!
Good luck on the

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